Indonesian archipelago spreads over 5200 km between the Asian mainland and Australia, all of it within the tropics, and comprises about 17,504 islands. Its ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity is correspondingly great, more than 583 traditional languages and dialects are spoken by its million people.
Indonesian geography sometimes makes travel difficult and time consuming, for a reason : surrounded by seas, the islands are often mountainous and densely covered in rainforest. Floods also is usually happen on some cities cause rainy season.
The largely volcanic nature of the islands has created tall cloud swept mountains swathed in the green of rice terraces or rainforest, dropping to blindingly bright beaches and vivid blue seas, the backdrop for Southeast Asia’s biggest wilderness areas and wildlife sanctuaries. All of this provides an endless resource for adventurous trekking, surfing, scuba diving, or just lounging by a pool in a five star hotel or resort.
Delays are usually happen to all forms of transport in Indonesia, including major flights, caused by weather, rain, or simply not enough passengers to turning up, so you will save your self a good deal of stress if you keep your schedule as flexible as possible.
By Air :
Indonesia has a fine internal air system linking most of the larger towns and cities to Jakarta. Domestic flights from Jakarta depart from Terminal 1, 2 and 3 at Soekarno Hatta International Airport (except Garuda Airlines flights, which leave from Terminal 2).
Domestic operators include Garuda Indonesia, Merpati Nusantara Airlines, Air Asia, Lion Air, Sriwijana Air, Express Air, etc.
The only rapid means of long distance travel within Indonesia is the plane. The largest domestic carriers are state-owned Garuda and private competitor Lion Air, but in recent years a host of low-cost competitors have sprung up, including Lion Air, and many more. Routes for less popular destinations and routes (particularly in eastern Indonesia) are served by Garuda Indonesia little buddy Merpati, memorably summarized as "It's Merpati and I'll fly if I want to", AirFast, Sriwijaya, and more, often flying smaller planes. If you really get off the beaten track, eg. settlements in remote area, there are no scheduled services at all and you'll need to charter a plane.
Cheap Fares :
The Asean Air Pass offers special fares on domestic flights and access to varying numbers of cities dependent on which ticket is purchased. Passes must be bought before traveling to Indonesia now all the airlines have a internet reservations and the price ticket its depend on sub class, main class is Business class and Economy Class.
Airport Tax :
Previous there are airport tax outside the tickets prices, between IDR. 45,000 to IDR. 75,000 depending on departure airport for Domestic flight and for International flights between IDR. 150,000 to IDR. 250,000/person, nowadays all the Airport Tax is including on the tickets Since May 2015.
By Sea :
Sea transports are important for trade and transportation alike. Each Indonesian island has at least one major port city. Boats here range from large maritime vessels to small motorized transports. Long distance ferry services connect to distant Indonesian islands or neighboring nations. Many of the islands lack roads and river or sea transport is the main form of transportation there.
PELINI, the state owned shipping company. Foreign liners also operate, however on an irregular basis. Luxury cruise ships offer voyages to a wide range of destinations, for further details, please visit : www.pelni.co.id.
There are also ASDP (Kapal Ferry Cepat) operate fast boats on a small number of routes in Indonesia.
By Train :
Not all places in Indonesia have a Train, the train is only available in Java and Sumatera. There are a few train services in Sumatra, but no system covering the whole island. There are 4 unconnected networks of the railway system in Java and Sumatra. Two major rail lines running the entire length of Java constitute the most railways in the country.
The train services running across most parts of Java and some parts of Sumatra are provided by PT Kereta Api. The infrastructure for Indonesia train travel was originally built by the Dutch, but little has been added to it since. Among the things done, most congested lines have been double tracked; though with poor maintenance derailments are occasional. Java has the best railway network with 2 lines running the whole island length. There are lines connecting major cities to the capital Jakarta. The lines connect Jakarta with Surabaya both via Semarang on the north coast and via Yogyakarta and Solo through the southern main line. Bandung is connected to the capital by around 30 trains per day, and is itself connected to Surabaya through Yogyakarta. Trains ply from Surabaya to Banyuwangi, which is connected by ferries to Bali. There are no rail roads to Bali. Sumatra's networks are concentrated on the northern (Medan) and the southern (Lampung to Palembang) parts of the island. The regularity of trains in this island is much less than that of Java. There are 3 types of services available namely air-conditioned, business and economy class. There are no sleeping cars. Theft in trains is common; lock the doors of the compartment if possible.
Tickets are available, often up to the last minute, except the Lebaran season. The high demand of tickets in this season makes traveling in trains a little problematic. The best Jakarta Surabaya train is the Argo Bromo Anggrek service. It is executive class only, modern and air conditioned, snacks and mineral water included in the fare. It has comfortable reclining seats with footrests, however no sleeping berths. There is both a daytime service and a time effective overnight service. From Jakarta to Bandung there is a train every hour or two, with executive and business class, taking about 3 hours for the 173 km.
Train trips through Indonesia are a pleasant experience with passages through beautiful landscapes, giving you a view of the rural and scenic Indonesia.
By Land / Road :
There are over 378,000 kilometers or 234,360 miles of roads in the country, of which about 28,500 kilometers or 17,670 miles are main or national roads and about 200 kilometers or 125 miles are motorways. Nearly half of the network is paved and traffic drives on the left.
There are good roads within Java and to a smaller extent on Bali and Sumatra. The other islands have reduced road systems, although they are improving with tourism becoming more significant. Road tolls are present on some major city roads and need to be paid for by visitors if traveling by taxi. Chauffeur-driven cars are widely available, with fares varying according to the destination.
By Bus / Public Transport :
Bus transport In Indonesia divided into several transport, the route in inter city and in the city. Bus fares run about the same as 3rd-class rail. Vehicles can be very crowded, although several of them are air conditioned. The crew is usually made up of 3 conductors who also act as touts. The "Bus Malam' are night buses available on a number of routes, running in competition with the railways. Pre-booking is absolutely essential. Special travel minibuses offering a door-to-door service are also available in cities and major tourist areas. Visitors should note that Indonesian bus drivers are famous for irresponsible driving.
Public transport in the city serve usually call it in varies depend on the city, in Java they call in "angkot", in South Sulawesi call it "Pete-pete" but for the whole name you just say "Angkutan Umum".
By Taxi :
Taxis are available in various large cities and some smaller towns. Metered taxis are only found in the major tourist areas and main cities. Taxi drivers do not always know how to get to the required destination and passengers may have to tell them. Like all public transportation vehicles, taxis own yellow number plates. The government vehicles have red number plates, whilst the private and rented vehicles have black number plates.
By Cars Rental :
Car hire is available from many companies and from taxi firms, which also provide a limousine service.
Alternative Transport / Traditional Transport :
There are 2 tricycle rickshaws options available in Indonesia: the motorised version is called Bajaj (pronounced ‘baj-eye’), is a bright orange color and seats 2 passengers, with the driver in front. The Becak (pronounced ‘be-chak’) is pedal-powered by a rider sitting behind with a maximum of 2 passengers, "Bentor" or "Becak Motor" is almost same with Becak but its use motor bike. Fares should be dealt with in advance.
For motorcycles, an International Driving License is needed and a helmet should be worn.
Bemos and Colts are small buses that seat up to 10 people. These can be rented on a daily or weekly basis for travel away from the city centers and fares should be negotiated in advance. Bendi/Dokar (Horse carts) also can be found in some place like in Yogyakarta and also in some village.
Ojeks (or ojegs) are motorcycle riders who take pillion passengers for a bargainable price. They are found at bus terminals and markets, or just hanging around at crossroads. They will take you around town and go where no other public transport exists, or along roads that are impassable in any other vehicle. They can also be rented by the hour for sightseeing.
Indonesia has the second longest coastline in the whole world certain time zones are followed by Indonesia. Basically Indonesia uses three time zones. They are as follows.
- Waktu Indonesia Bagian Barat (WIB).
Waktu Indonesia Bagian Barat is officially known as West Indonesia Time in Indonesia. In Indonesia "Waktu" means time, "Bagian" stands for part and "Barat" stands for west. So, the Waktu Indonesia Bagian Barat means the time which is prevalent in the western part of Indonesia. Waktu Indonesia Bagian Barat or the West Indonesia Time is UTC/GMT +7 hours.
- Waktu Indonesia Bagian Tengah (WITA).
Waktu Indonesia Bagian Tengah is known as the Central Indonesia Time in Indonesia. "Tengah" stands for central in Indonesia. Central Indonesia Time is UTC/GMT +8 hours.
- Waktu Indonesia Bagian Timur (WIT).
Waktu Indonesia Bagian Timur is known as the East Indonesia Time in Indonesia. "Timur" means east in Indonesian language. Waktu Indonesia Bagian Timur or the East Indonesia Time is UTC/GMT +9 hours.